A form of protection to the edge of a building or terrace, consisting of vertical masonry (or cast-iron or concrete) uprights with massive bases and copes. The uprights are ‘balusters’, and are usually shaped in an ornamental way. Balustrades are often divided into sections by ‘dies’, solid sections rising above the copes.
In a roof which overhangs the masonry of a gable, the boards on the outer edge of the roof, protecting the exposed ends of the purlins.
A name given to the lower part of a wall, where it projects from the face of the upper part. The basecourse serves to thicken the wall where it meets the foundation, and also to shed water away from the base.
In a sash-and-case window, the strips of wood which separate the sashes, allowing them to slide past each other. Also used to describe a rounded moulding.
This word describes the placing of blocks of building materials on a layer of softer material (mortar or sand). Stones such as sandstones, slates, and flagstones were formed by depositing silt, or drifted sand, in layers. When building in sandstone these layers should be horizontal, or nearly so. If, in a stone built into a wall, the layers are vertical, it is described as ‘Face bedded’, and is more vulnerable to decay than if the layers were horizontal.
In a tower, spire or steeple, the section in which a bell or bells are hung. Provided with openings, usually louvred, to allow the bell(s) to be heard.
Related Words : Louvres, Louvre
A term used to describe a roof in which the slope flattens out just above the wallhead.
Also belfry, a support for a bell or bells, usually mounted on a gable or wallhead. In churches with towers, spires or steeples the bell or bells are usually in a chamber at the top of the tower.
Related Words : Cupola
A chemical preparation used to kill plants, fungi or animals which are damaging a building, or to control vegetation growth.
A thick, tarry material, the residue of coal-tar or petroleum refining. In building it is used in making roofing felt, in coating materials such as brick, breeze block, or masonry to waterproof it, and, in bituminous paint, as a waterproofing material for local application
Blind (of arcades etc)
When a church was being built of stone, some of the stones intended to be carved were frequently built in as roughly-shaped blocks. If the carving was not undertaken, the masonry is said to be ‘in block’.
In classical buildings, the masonry above a cornice, whose mass gives stability to the latter.
When a rendered finish, such as harling separates from the underlying masonry or brickwork it is said to be boss, or bossed. If the affected section is tapped it responds by returning a dull sound.
A gutter of rectangular cross-section, usually on top of a wallhead. The gutter may be made of stone, wood or metal. Such gutters are sometimes referred to as ‘secret’ or ‘parapet’ gutters.
Related Words : Lead
A building block made of some light aggregate bound with cement. Breeze blocks were originally made with ‘breeze’ – small pieces of gas-works coke. They are now made with foamed slag, a by-product from iron-smelting. Usually used to make internal walls
Five types of brick are likely to be found in church walls.1. Blaes bricks. These are made from powdered coal measures clays, lightly fired. They usually have black patches on one or more faces. When used for external walls they should be rendered.2. Clay bricks. These are generally red all over, and are heavier than blaes bricks. They do not need to be rendered, but sometimes are.3. Facing bricks. These are usually plastic-clay bricks, but have a surface designed to be seen. Smooth-faced ones are sometimes terra-cotta ones. Rough-faced ones are termed ‘rustic’ bricks.4. Engineering bricks. These are fired at a high temperature, and are very heavy and strong. They are often bluish in colour, or a dark red. As they are dense they can make an effective damp-proof course;5. Lime-sand bricks. These are made by curing, at a low temperature a mixture of slaked lime and sand, or crushed spent shale. They are usually a light purple or pink in colour.
A building-trade craftsman who specialises in laying bricks, a skill by no means as easy as it looks.
As the name suggests, a mesh of bronze wire, used to protect stained or leaded glass windows. If properly designed and made they are almost invisible in normal lighting.
A building professional with training and experience in ascertaining the condition of a building, and recommending remedial action. Some building surveyors are specially qualified to examine historic buildings. Building surveyors can also estimate the value of buildings.
Related Words : Quinquennial inspection
Of masonry, made of blocks with curved outer faces. Also used to refer to the timber with lead capping at the edge of a flat roof
Related Words : Rock-faced
A rib of masonry projecting from the face of a wall. Its primary purpose is to strengthen the wall, and to resist the outward thrust of roof trusses or masonry vaulting, but it also has a decorative purpose.
Related Words : Pinnacle